Information / Transaction Machines Accessibility
(Version 1.1, August 1998)
Gregg C. Vanderheiden, Ph.D.
Chris M. Law, MS.
Trace Research and Development Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison
This is a publication of the Trace Research and Development Center which is funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research of the Department of Education under grant number H133E30012. The opinions contained in this publication are those of the grantee and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Education.
© Copyright 1998, Trace Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
Introduction to Guidelines
1 Usability of the product
2 Personal Compatibility
3 Guidelines for Compatibility With Peripheral
4 Information, documentation, and training
External WWW links used in this document
: Compliance with the ADA for ITMs (Information / Transaction Machines: Kiosks,
This guideline provides requirements for accessibility, usability, and compatibility of Information / Transaction Machines (ITMs). ITMs are defined as a class of electronic products, usually public in nature, which provide informational or transactional capabilities, including, but not limited to fare machines, vending machines, automated teller machines, electronic building directories, point-of-sale terminals, and information kiosks.
This document has been prepared using input from a number of sources, including two documents from the Access Board (Telecommunications Requirements and the ADAAG). While the
themes of the ITM guidelines and the two Access Board documents are similar, the wording has in some cases been transcribed verbatim,
and in other cases it has been substantially modified in order to meet the needs
specific to ITMs. Therefore, no cross-compatibility between these documents
is assumed or implied, except where specifically stated.
- FCC Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Access to Telecommunications
Services and Equipment to Americans With Disabilities, April 2, 1998.
- Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) for
Buildings and Facilities. Published in the federal register July 26, 1991
Status of this (ITM Guideline) Document
This ITM guideline (version 1.1) has been developed by the Trace Center for the US Access board as a part of grant number H133E30012 of the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research of the Department of Education. It does not carry the force of any law, although it does bear relation to the ADAAG, and TAAG.
The Trace Center is actively seeking comment from the public, industry, and
any other affected organizations. In order to comment to Trace at this stage,
please refer to the "mechanism for ongoing dialog" section of the
TRACE ITM page.
For current information / news / updates regarding the status of this and related
documents, please check the Updates
and News pages.
For the status on the applicability of this document, please contact the
Introduction to Guidelines
This guideline consists of 4 main parts:
- Usability of the product
- Personal Compatibility
- Compatibility With Peripheral Devices
- Information, documentation, and training
ITMs should be accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities and should comply with these 4 parts as appropriate to achieve accessibility and usability. Efforts to make products accessible should not be limited to adherence to these guidelines.
Manufacturers should evaluate the accessibility, usability, and compatibility of ITMs and should incorporate such evaluation throughout product design, development, and fabrication, as early and consistently as possible. Manufacturers should identify barriers to accessibility and usability as part of such a product design and development process.
In developing such a process, manufacturers should consider the following factors:
- Where market research is undertaken, including individuals with disabilities in target populations of such research;
- Where product design, testing, pilot demonstrations, and product trials are conducted, including individuals with disabilities in such activities;
- Working cooperatively with appropriate disability-related organizations; and
- Making reasonable efforts to validate any unproven access solutions through testing with individuals with disabilities or with appropriate disability-related organizations that have established expertise with individuals with disabilities.
In revising products, no change should be undertaken which decreases or has
the effect of decreasing the net accessibility, usability, or compatibility
of ITMs (with the exception of discontinuation of a product).
1.Usability of the product
The following guidelines should be followed and implemented on the product,
as is readily achievable
Where it is not possible to meet all of the guidelines below with a single mode of operation, alternate modes should be provided which are as close as possible to the standard mode of operation.
Usable without ability to hear product
- Provide all auditory information necessary to use the product through at least one mode in visual form.
Usable with reduced ability to hear product
- Provide audio or acoustic information, including any auditory feedback tones that are important for the use of the product, through at least one mode in enhanced auditory fashion (i.e., increased amplification, increased signal-to-noise ratio, or combination). For transmitted voice signals, provide a gain adjustable up to a minimum of 20 dB gain. For incremental volume control, provide at least one intermediate step of 12 dB of gain.
- Where a product delivers audio output through an external speaker, provide an industry standard connector for headphones or personal listening devices (e.g., phone-like handset or earcup) which cuts off the speaker(s) when used.
- In addition, the product should comply with the following provision
Usable without ability to see product
- Provide at least one mode that does not require user vision.
- Provide information which is presented visually through at least one mode in auditory form.
Usable with reduced ability to see product and reduced or no ability to hear product
- Provide at least one mode that permits operation by users with visual acuity
between 20/70 and 20/200, without relying on audio output.
- If moving text is used, provide at least one mode where static
presentation of information is available.
Usable with reduced or no ability to perceive / discern between colors on product
- Provide at least one mode that does not require user color perception.
Usable without requiring attention to 2 (or more) locations simultaneously (even in access modes)
- Provide at least one mode that does not require the user to be looking at 2 (or more) locations simultaneously (even where captions are being used).
- Provide at least one mode that does not require the user to listen to 2 (or more) streams of audio simultaneously (even where verbal descriptions are being used).
Usable without simultaneous actions
- Provide at least one mode that does not require simultaneous actions.
Usable with reduced ability to manipulate controls on product
- Provide at least one mode that does not require user fine motor control.
- In addition, the product should comply with the following provision:
Usable with reduced ability to reach product
- The product should comply with the reach provisions given under the following provision from the ADAAG:
Usable with reduced strength
- The product should comply with the following provisions
Usable from a wheelchair or similar personal vehicle
- The product should comply with the following provisions
Usable with reduced ability to respond quickly to product requests
- Provide at least one mode that does not require a timed response.
- Alternatively, a response time may be required if it can be by-passed or adjusted by the user over a wide range (up to 10 times the average time).
Usable without ability to speak
- Provide at least one mode that does not require user speech.
Usable without ability to read information displayed on product
- Provide at least one mode that does not require the user to read.
Usable with limited processing skills
- Provide at least one mode that minimizes the processing skills required of the user.
Usable with reduced ability to remember product processes
- Provide at least one mode that minimizes the need to remember or to memorize product processes or information presented.
Usable with limited language skills
- Provide at least one mode that minimizes the need to understand complex language elements.
The following should be a part of all modes of operation of the device, as applicable:
Absence of seizure-inducing displays on product
- Visual displays and indicators should minimize visual flicker that might induce seizures in people with photosensitive epilepsy.
Absence of hearing-aid interference from product
- Reduce interference to hearing technologies (including hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive listening devices) to the lowest possible level that allows a user to use the product.
Absence of protruding objects on product
- The product should comply with the following provision
Absence of single-aspect means of identification on product, if biological means are used
- Where biometric forms of user identification are used (retinal scanning, iris scanning, voiceprint identification, fingerprint scanning etc.), an alternative form of identification which does not require the user to possess particular biological characteristics, should be provided.
Usable with prosthetic limbs or other body parts
- Touch-operated controls should be usable without requiring
body contact or close body proximity.
3.Guidelines for Compatibility
With Peripheral Devices
ITMs should be compatible with peripheral devices commonly used by individuals with disabilities to achieve accessibility, and should comply with the following provisions, as applicable:
Hearing aid coupling
- Where a product delivers output by an audio transducer which is normally held up to the ear, a means for effective wireless coupling to hearing aids should be provided.
Connection point for external audio processing devices.
- Products providing auditory output should provide the auditory signal at a standard signal level through an industry standard connector.
External electronic access to all information and control mechanisms.
- Information needed for the operation of products (including output, alerts, icons, on-line help, and documentation) should be available in a standard electronic text format on a cross-industry standard port and all input to and control of a product should allow for real time operation by electronic text input into a cross-industry standard external port and in cross-industry standard format. The cross-industry standard port should not require manipulation of a connector by the user.
TTY (Text Telephone) connectability (telecommunications devices only)
- Products providing a function allowing voice communication and which do not themselves provide a TTY functionality should provide a standard non-acoustic connection point for TTYs. It should also be possible for the user to easily turn any microphone on and off to allow the user to intermix speech with TTY use.
TTY (Text Telephone) signal compatibility (telecommunications devices only)
- Products providing voice communication functionality, should support use of all cross-manufacturer non-proprietary standard signals used by TTYs.
Information pass through.
- ITMs should pass through cross-manufacturer, non-proprietary, industry-standard codes, translation protocols, formats or other information necessary to provide transactions in an accessible format.
- Signal compression technologies should not remove information needed for access or should restore it upon decompression.
4.Information, documentation, and
- Manufacturers should ensure access to information and documentation it provides to its customers. Such information and documentation includes user guides, installation guides for end-user installable devices, and product support communications, regarding both the product in general and the accessibility features of the product. Manufacturers should take such other steps as necessary including:
- Providing a description of the accessibility and compatibility features of the product upon request, including, as needed, in alternate formats or alternate modes at no additional charge;
- Providing end-user product documentation in alternate formats or alternate modes upon request at no additional charge; and
- Ensuring usable customer support and technical support in the call centers and service centers which support their products at no additional charge.
- Manufacturers should include in general product information the contact method for obtaining the information required by this section.
- Where manufacturers provide employee training, they should ensure it is appropriate to an employee's function. In developing, or incorporating existing training programs, consideration should be given to the following factors:
- Accessibility requirements of individuals with disabilities;
- Means of communicating with individuals with disabilities;
- Commonly used adaptive technology used with the manufacturer's products;
- Designing for accessibility; and
- Solutions for accessibility and compatibility.
WWW links used in this document