Skip Navigationtrace.wisc.edu HelpSearchBottom of Page

If Word Prediction Can Help, Which
Program Do You Choose?

Jamie Klund, MS, OTR

Sun Prairie Public Schools
509 Commercial Avenue
Sun Prairie, WI 53590
(608) 834-7333
email: mjklund@facstaff.wisc.edu

Mark Novak, BSEE, PE

Trace R&D Center
2107 Engineering Centers Bldg.
1550 Engineering Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-6966
email: info@trace.wisc.edu

Copyright 1995-2001

Note: Appendix B, which contains a list of Word Prediction Software Developers has been revised since it was first presented at the 1995 Closing the Gap Conference.

Abstract

Word prediction software programs have been available for IBM and Macintosh personal computer for several years. The concept of word prediction began as a simple assistive tool to reduce the number of keystrokes necessary for individuals with mobility impairment, making it easier to communicate and less fatiguing for the user. However, recent studies have reported the benefits of word prediction techniques for uses other than saving keystrokes and perhaps warranting further examination.

Introduction

Very important issues to many Alternative Communication and Assistive Technology (AAC/AT) users are the ability to communicate effectively and/or the ability to type effectively on the computer, both for education and competitive employment opportunities. An important characteristic of both effective communication and typing is the "rate" at which one communicates or is able to generate text. Rate is often defined as keystroke efficiency.2

Within the multitude of research and clinical studies that exist in this area, there are several rate enhancement techniques available to the AAC/AT user. Some of the more common strategies include abbreviation expansion, word prediction, and semantic encoding. This paper/presentation will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of word prediction. Also attached to this paper are feature comparison charts of six word prediction programs and a comprehensive listing of word prediction software developers in appendix A and B respectively.

Discussion

There has been confusion in the rehabilitation community as to the use of the term "word prediction," because word prediction has come to imply both "word completion and word prediction." Word completion is defined as offering the user a list of words after a letter has been typed. Word prediction is defined as offering the user a list of words after a word has been typed or selected, based on previous words rather than on the basis of letters.3 Word prediction programs now offer a multitude of prediction strategies including word lists based on spelling and frequency of word usage in the English language; word lists based on word recency, association, and grammar; and finally, word lists based on topic words.6

Initially, word prediction provided the physically disabled user a simple word selection list for completing their typed or communication selections. This word list offered rate enhancement by decreasing the number of keystrokes required to type any given word, which became known as keystroke savings. Several studies cited in the literature support the use of word prediction to enhance keystroke savings with experimentally determined keystroke savings' ranges of 37-47% and clinical data to support 23-58% keystroke savings.5,10

There are, however, increased cognitive and perceptual loads that accompany the use of word prediction. The most commonly cited activities increasing cognitive and perceptual loads include visually searching the list of words and deciding whether or not the list contains the desired word.10 Other activities that increase perceptual loads include changing the point of gaze between the keyboard and the display6 as well as the cognitive processing that is needed to use and guide the overall activity.7 There are several studies in the literature which demonstrate that even though there is a keystroke savings with the use of word prediction, there is not always an improvement in overall text generation or communication rate due to the costs of increased cognitive and perceptual loads.7,10

Some factors can either increase or decrease the cognitive and perceptual loads associated with word prediction. The continued use or practice of using word prediction over time may actually improve performance and facilitate more consistent and efficient strategies for using the word list. Studies that have documented the increased cognitive and perceptual loads of word prediction gave the participants only one training session before data collection began. Interestingly, user performance was still improving at the end of the studies.9,10 The strategy used to search the word list also has an effect on the text generation rate. A good "all purpose" strategy is to type one letter and then search the word list. However, depending upon the speed of keypress time and list search time, there may be a more efficient strategy.11

There may also be a reduced fatigue factor with the use of word prediction. Due to keystroke savings, the physically disabled user may be able to work longer with more comfort when using word prediction as compared to letters only typing.

Sometimes characteristics of a word prediction system may influence the cognitive and perceptual loads. These characteristics include the length, orientation, placement, and order of the word list. Studies have shown that speed of text generation rate plateaus at a word list length of about five words.12,15 A vertical word list may be easier to visually scan than a horizontal word list,15 as well as easier to cognitively process, depending upon word order. Words lists can be ordered alphabetically, by word length or statistically.

Another important characteristic of the word prediction system is the lexicon. The lexicon, or dictionary of stored vocabulary, effects whether the desired word will appear in the word list. A relatively small dictionary containing the highest frequency words in the English language will be effective, based on normal word usage.1,16 A dictionary can be fixed, having a stored vocabulary that never changes. This fixed list may be more predictable to the user and become more automatic over time.3 An adaptive dictionary is able to collect new words as the user types and may be more apt to generate the desired word sooner since it is capable of learning the user's typing or communication style. Words can also be added to topic dictionaries of a particular subject matter, forcing these specific content area words to appear in the word list.

Other characteristics of a word prediction system which can improve overall keystroke savings may include automatic spacing and automatic capitalization as well as abbreviation expansion.15

In more recent literature, other benefits of word prediction have been explored, showing that use of word prediction can improve the quality and quantity of written work.4 Word prediction may also enhance the development of written literacy skills5 and provide spelling assistance to those with various levels of spelling disorder. The user can often recognize and select a word from a list that he/she would otherwise have been unable to spell, increasing their independence in producing written work.14 Likewise, the use of grammatical word prediction has been shown to improve sentence structure and the grammatical accuracy of text: Specifically, grammatical word prediction offers assistance in remembering not to omit common function words and using the correct form of words as appropriate.13 Other benefits mentioned in the recent literature include increased user attention span, improved confidence, improved ability to write independently, and increased stimulation of language and vocabulary development.4,8,14,17

In summary, the effect of word prediction may be unique to each individual user. The ability to improve effective communication and typing rate is dependent on the characteristics of the user, the costs versus benefits of using word prediction, and the characteristics of the word prediction system itself. These are all important factors to consider when determining if word prediction is appropriate, rather than thinking about word prediction as a rate enhancement tool alone.

Appendix A: Word Prediction Comparison Charts

IBM Focus

FEATURES4

KeyREP

Keycache

Aurora

Platform

PC

PC

PC

- DOS/Windows

No/Yes

Yes/Yes

Yes/Yes

Self-contained word proc.

No

No

No

Dictionary

     

- Number of words

5K

with reg.

100K

- Add words and phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choice of dictionaries

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Save/load per. dict.

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Delete/modify dict.

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Auto-learn

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Abbreviation expansion

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Allows for Macros

No

Yes

No

- Dictionary extension

*.prd

*.dic

*.dct

Display Window

     

- Change size/type

Yes

No

Yes

- Change font

Yes

No

Yes

- Adjust size of window

Yes

No (auto)

Yes

- Adjust location

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Fixed or Dynamic

both

both

fixed

Word Choice Arrangement

     

- Number of words

1-10

0-9, jump

1-9,plus

- Orientation

Hor/ Ver.

Ver.

Hor/Ver

- Alphabetical order

No (freq.)

Yes

Yes

- Error Correction Key

Yes

No

Yes

Prediction

     

- Predicts ahead - next

No

Yes

Yes

- Predicts phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Predicts by grammar

No

No

Yes

Preferences

     

- Cap. first word in

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Space after word

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Space after period

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choose by number

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choose by point/click

No

Yes

No

- To type selection

type #,

<esc> type #,

type 0

- On-Screen Keyboard

No

No

No

Speech

     

- Speak letter/word

No

No

Yes

- Speak word choices

No

No

Yes

- Speak finished sentence

No

No

Yes

Price (~Aug. 1, 95, DOS/Win)

$290

$75/$100

(var./$430)

Macintosh Focus

FEATURES4

TELEPATHIC 2.0

CO:WRITER

WORDWRITER

Platform

Mac

Mac

Mac

Self-contained word proc.

No

No

No

Dictionary

     

- Number of words

0-16,000

2, 10 40K

4000

- Add words and phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choice of dictionaries

Yes

Yes

No

- Save/load per. dict

Yes

Yes

No

- Delete/modify dict

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Auto-learn

Yes

Yes

No

- Abbreviation expansion

Yes

Yes

No

Display Window

     

- Change size/type

Yes

Yes

No

- Change font

Yes

Yes

No

- Adjust size of window

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Adjust location

Yes

Yes

Yes

Word Choice Arrangement

     

- Number of words

1-64

0-9

Page

- Fixed or Dynamic

Fixed

Either

Fixed

Arrangement

     

- Orientation

Hor/Ver.

Hor/Ver.

Page

- Alphabetical order

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Error Correction Key

Yes

Yes

No

Prediction

     

- Predicts ahead

Yes

Yes

No

- Predicts phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Predicts by grammar

No

Yes

No

Preferences

     

- Cap. first word in

Yes

Yes

No

- Space after word

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Space after period

Yes

Yes

No

- Choose by number

Yes

Yes

No

- To type selection

Set hot key

esc. key

N/A

- Choose by point/click

Yes

Yes

Yes

- On-Screen Keyboard

Yes

No

Yes

Speech

     

- Speak letter/word

Yes

Yes

No

- Speak word choices

Yes

Yes

No

- Speak finished sentence

No

Yes

No

Price (~Aug. 1, 95, Macintosh)

$295

$290

$150

Appendix B: Word Prediction Software Developer Listing (Updated May 2001)

NOTE: This list is intended as a reference for those who want an overview of word prediction software - rather than a "shopping list." Items appearing with a "M" are intended for the Macintosh operating system, while items appearing with a "D" or "W" are for the PC operating systems DOS and Windows respectively.  (Please contact individual companies as listed below for more specific operating system requirements.)

 ACE Centre Advisory Trust
92 Windmill Road
Headington
Oxford OX3 7DR
+44 1865 759800
FAX +44 1864 75810
info@ace-centre.org.uk
http://www.ace-centre.org.uk

Prophet - W

Applied Human Factors, Inc.
PO Box 781076
San Antonio, TX 78278
(888) 243-0098
(210) 408-0098
FAX (210) 408-0097
http://www.ahf-net.com

SoothSayer Word Prediction Program - W

Assistive Technology, Inc. (formerly Institute on Applied Technology)
7 Wells Avenue
Newton, MA 02459
(800) 793-9227
(617) 641-9000
FAX (617) 641-9191
customercare@assistivetech.com
http://www.assistivetech.com/

WriteAway - D
WriteAway 2000 - W

Aurora Systems Inc.
Box 43005
4739 Willingdon Ave.
Burnaby, BC
V5G-3H0
CANADA
(888) 290-1113
(604) 291-6310
FAX (604) 291-6310
http://www.aurora-systems.com

Aurora 2.0 for DOS - D
Aurora for Windows - W

Don Johnston Inc.
26799 W. Commerce Dr.
Volo, IL 60073
(800) 999-4660
(847) 740-0749
FAX (847) 740-7349
djde@mcs.net
djde@aol.com
http://www.donjohnston.com/

Co:Writer 4000 - M/W

Gus Communications Inc.
1006 Lonetree Court
Bellingham, WA 98226-3167
(360) 715-8580
FAX (360) 715-9633
gus@gusinc.com
http://www.gusinc.com/

Gus! Multimedia Speech System - W
Gus! Word Prediction - W

Information Services Inc.
PO Box 7056
Water St.
St. John's, NF
Canada
A1E 3Y3
1-888-492-4925
FAX: (709) 754-3826

WriteAway - D/M

Innovation Management Group
21550 Oxnard St., Suite 300
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
(800) 889-0987
(818) 346-3581
FAX (818) 346-3973
http://www.IMGPresents.com

My-T-Soft AT - W

Innovative Designs Inc.
913 San Raman Valley Blvd.
Suite 280
Danville,  CA 94526
(925) 736-9600
Finishline@FeaturedItems.com
http://www.spies.com/finishline/

Finish Line - D/W

Madentec Limited
9935 29 A Ave.
Edmonton, AB
T6N-1A9
CANADA
(877) 623-3682
(780) 450-8926
FAX (780) 988-6182
http://www.madentec.com

Screen Doors 2000 - W
Telepathic 2000 - W

Mayer-Johnson Company
PO Box 1579
Solana Beach, CA 92075-1579
(800) 588-4548
(619) 550-0084
FAX (619) 555-0449
http://www.mayer-johnson.com

Speaking Dynamically - M
Speaking Dynamically Pro - M

 NanoPac Inc.
4823 South Sheridan Road
Suite 302
Tulsa, OK 74145-5717
(800) 580-6086
(918) 665-0329
FAX (918) 665-0361
info@nanopac.com
http://www.nanopac.com/

CINTEX I - D

Origin Instruments
854 Greenview Dr.
Grand Prairie, TX 75050
(800) 280-3751
(972) 606-8740
FAX (972) 606-8741
http://www.orin.com

SofType - W

Penfriend Ltd.
30 South Oswald Road
Edinburgh
EH9 2HG
Scotland
Telephone: 0131 668 2000
Fax: 0131 668 2000
info@penfriend.ltd.uk
http://www.jasper.co.uk/designconcept/

Penfriend - W

Prentke Romich Company
1022 Heyl Road
Wooster, OH 44691
(800) 262-1984
(800) 262-1933
(800) 262-1990
(330) 262-1984
FAX (330) 263-4829
info@prentrom.com
http://www.prentrom.com

KeyREP - W
WiViK 2 Scan - W
WiViK 2 REP - W

R J Cooper & Associates
24843 Del Prado, Suite 283
Dana Point, CA 92629
(800) RJCOOPER
(714) 240-1912
FAX (714) 240-9785
http://www.rjcooper.com

ONSCREEN - M/W

Synapse Adaptive
3095 Kerner Blvd., Suite S
San Rafael,  CA  94901
(888) 285-9988
FAX(415) 455-9801
info@synapseadaptive.com
http://www.synapseadaptive.com/texthelp/texthelp_products.htm

textHELP! Read & Write -W
textHELP! Type & Talk -M/W

University of Dundee
Several research projects from the University of Dundee have yielded commercial products, including PredictAbility (see below).
Inclusive Technology Ltd.
Saddleworth Business Centre
Huddersfield Road
Delph . Oldham . OL3 5DF
UK
Telephone: +44 (0) 1457 819790
Fax: +44 (0) 1457 819799
Email: inclusive@inclusive.co.uk
http://www.inclusive.co.uk

PredictAbility - W

Words+ Inc.
1220 W. Ave. J
Lancaster. Ca 93534
(800) 869-8521
(661) 723-6523
FAX (661) 723-2114
support@words-plus.com
http://www.words-plus.com/

E Z Keys - D/W
Equalizer - D 
Morse Code WSKE II - D
Scanning WSKE II - D
ACSL (Augmentative Communication Software Library) - W

References

  1. D.R. Beukelman, K.M. Yorkston, M. Poblete, C. Naranjo, "Frequency of Word Occurrence in Communication Samples Produced by Adult Communication Users," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, vol. 49, pp. 360-367, 1984.
  2. S. Blackstone, Augmentative Communication News, September, 1990, Vol.3, No.5
  3. A.M. Cook, S.M. Hussey, Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice, Mosby-Year Book Inc., 1995, pp. 493-498.
  4. B. Heinisch, J. Hecht, "A Comparison of Six Programs, Word Prediction Software," TAM Newsletter, pp. 4-9, 1993
  5. D.J. Higginbotham, "Evaluation of Keystroke Savings Across Five Assistive Communication Technologies," Augmentative Alternative Communication, vol. 8, no. 4, 258-272, 1992.
  6. D.J. Higginbotham, "Word Prediction in MS DOS Land," Communicating Together, Part 1, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 10- 13, 1992, Part 2, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 9-10, 1992
  7. H.M. Horstmann, S.P. Levine, "The Effectiveness of Word Prediction," Proc. 14th RESNA Conf., 1991, pp. 100-102.
  8. M. Hunt-Berg, J.L. Rankin, D.R. Beukelman, "Ponder the Possibilities: Computer-Supported Writing for Struggling Writers," Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 9 (3), pp. 169-178, 1994.
  9. H.H. Koester, S.P. Levine, "Learning and Performance of Able-Bodied Individuals Using Scanning Systems with and without Word Prediction," Assistive Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 42-53, 1994.
  10. H.H. Koester, S.P. Levine, "Modeling the Speed of Text Entry with a Word Prediction Interface," IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 177-187, 1994.
  11. H.H. Koester, S.P. Levine, "Simulations of User Performance with Word Prediction," Proc. 18th RESNA Conf., 1995.
  12. G.A. Miller, "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits On Our Capacity For Processing Information," The Psychological Review, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 81-97, 1956.
  13. C. Morris, A. Newell, L. Booth, I. Ricketts, J. Arnott, "Syntax PAL: A System to Improve the Written Syntax of Language-Impaired Users," Assistive Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 51-59, 1992.
  14. A.F. Newell, et. al., "Effect of the "PAL" Word Prediction System on the Quality and Quantity of Text Generation," AAC Augmentative and Alternative Communication, vol. 8, pp. 304-311, 1992.
  15. A.L. Swiffin, J.L. Arnott, A.F. Newell, "Adaptive and Predictive Techniques in a Communication Prosthesis," Augmentative Alternative Communication vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 181-191, 1987.
  16. G.C. Vanderheiden, D.P. Kelso, "Comparative Analysis of Fixed-Vocabulary Communication Acceleration Techniques," Augmentative Alternative Communication, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 196-206, 1987.
  17. W. Waltosz, "Word Prediction Schemes-They're Not All The Same," unpublished work, 1995

======= If Word Prediction Can Help, Which
Skip Navigationtrace.wisc.edu HelpSearchBottom of Page

If Word Prediction Can Help, Which
Program Do You Choose?

Jamie Klund, MS, OTR

Sun Prairie Public Schools
509 Commercial Avenue
Sun Prairie, WI 53590
(608) 834-7333
email: mjklund@facstaff.wisc.edu

Mark Novak, BSEE, PE

Trace R&D Center
2107 Engineering Centers Bldg.
1550 Engineering Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
(608) 262-6966
email: info@trace.wisc.edu

Copyright 1995-2001

Note: Appendix B, which contains a list of Word Prediction Software Developers has been revised since it was first presented at the 1995 Closing the Gap Conference.

Abstract

Word prediction software programs have been available for IBM and Macintosh personal computer for several years. The concept of word prediction began as a simple assistive tool to reduce the number of keystrokes necessary for individuals with mobility impairment, making it easier to communicate and less fatiguing for the user. However, recent studies have reported the benefits of word prediction techniques for uses other than saving keystrokes and perhaps warranting further examination.

Introduction

Very important issues to many Alternative Communication and Assistive Technology (AAC/AT) users are the ability to communicate effectively and/or the ability to type effectively on the computer, both for education and competitive employment opportunities. An important characteristic of both effective communication and typing is the "rate" at which one communicates or is able to generate text. Rate is often defined as keystroke efficiency.2

Within the multitude of research and clinical studies that exist in this area, there are several rate enhancement techniques available to the AAC/AT user. Some of the more common strategies include abbreviation expansion, word prediction, and semantic encoding. This paper/presentation will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of word prediction. Also attached to this paper are feature comparison charts of six word prediction programs and a comprehensive listing of word prediction software developers in appendix A and B respectively.

Discussion

There has been confusion in the rehabilitation community as to the use of the term "word prediction," because word prediction has come to imply both "word completion and word prediction." Word completion is defined as offering the user a list of words after a letter has been typed. Word prediction is defined as offering the user a list of words after a word has been typed or selected, based on previous words rather than on the basis of letters.3 Word prediction programs now offer a multitude of prediction strategies including word lists based on spelling and frequency of word usage in the English language; word lists based on word recency, association, and grammar; and finally, word lists based on topic words.6

Initially, word prediction provided the physically disabled user a simple word selection list for completing their typed or communication selections. This word list offered rate enhancement by decreasing the number of keystrokes required to type any given word, which became known as keystroke savings. Several studies cited in the literature support the use of word prediction to enhance keystroke savings with experimentally determined keystroke savings' ranges of 37-47% and clinical data to support 23-58% keystroke savings.5,10

There are, however, increased cognitive and perceptual loads that accompany the use of word prediction. The most commonly cited activities increasing cognitive and perceptual loads include visually searching the list of words and deciding whether or not the list contains the desired word.10 Other activities that increase perceptual loads include changing the point of gaze between the keyboard and the display6 as well as the cognitive processing that is needed to use and guide the overall activity.7 There are several studies in the literature which demonstrate that even though there is a keystroke savings with the use of word prediction, there is not always an improvement in overall text generation or communication rate due to the costs of increased cognitive and perceptual loads.7,10

Some factors can either increase or decrease the cognitive and perceptual loads associated with word prediction. The continued use or practice of using word prediction over time may actually improve performance and facilitate more consistent and efficient strategies for using the word list. Studies that have documented the increased cognitive and perceptual loads of word prediction gave the participants only one training session before data collection began. Interestingly, user performance was still improving at the end of the studies.9,10 The strategy used to search the word list also has an effect on the text generation rate. A good "all purpose" strategy is to type one letter and then search the word list. However, depending upon the speed of keypress time and list search time, there may be a more efficient strategy.11

There may also be a reduced fatigue factor with the use of word prediction. Due to keystroke savings, the physically disabled user may be able to work longer with more comfort when using word prediction as compared to letters only typing.

Sometimes characteristics of a word prediction system may influence the cognitive and perceptual loads. These characteristics include the length, orientation, placement, and order of the word list. Studies have shown that speed of text generation rate plateaus at a word list length of about five words.12,15 A vertical word list may be easier to visually scan than a horizontal word list,15 as well as easier to cognitively process, depending upon word order. Words lists can be ordered alphabetically, by word length or statistically.

Another important characteristic of the word prediction system is the lexicon. The lexicon, or dictionary of stored vocabulary, effects whether the desired word will appear in the word list. A relatively small dictionary containing the highest frequency words in the English language will be effective, based on normal word usage.1,16 A dictionary can be fixed, having a stored vocabulary that never changes. This fixed list may be more predictable to the user and become more automatic over time.3 An adaptive dictionary is able to collect new words as the user types and may be more apt to generate the desired word sooner since it is capable of learning the user's typing or communication style. Words can also be added to topic dictionaries of a particular subject matter, forcing these specific content area words to appear in the word list.

Other characteristics of a word prediction system which can improve overall keystroke savings may include automatic spacing and automatic capitalization as well as abbreviation expansion.15

In more recent literature, other benefits of word prediction have been explored, showing that use of word prediction can improve the quality and quantity of written work.4 Word prediction may also enhance the development of written literacy skills5 and provide spelling assistance to those with various levels of spelling disorder. The user can often recognize and select a word from a list that he/she would otherwise have been unable to spell, increasing their independence in producing written work.14 Likewise, the use of grammatical word prediction has been shown to improve sentence structure and the grammatical accuracy of text: Specifically, grammatical word prediction offers assistance in remembering not to omit common function words and using the correct form of words as appropriate.13 Other benefits mentioned in the recent literature include increased user attention span, improved confidence, improved ability to write independently, and increased stimulation of language and vocabulary development.4,8,14,17

In summary, the effect of word prediction may be unique to each individual user. The ability to improve effective communication and typing rate is dependent on the characteristics of the user, the costs versus benefits of using word prediction, and the characteristics of the word prediction system itself. These are all important factors to consider when determining if word prediction is appropriate, rather than thinking about word prediction as a rate enhancement tool alone.

Appendix A: Word Prediction Comparison Charts

IBM Focus

FEATURES4

KeyREP

Keycache

Aurora

Platform

PC

PC

PC

- DOS/Windows

No/Yes

Yes/Yes

Yes/Yes

Self-contained word proc.

No

No

No

Dictionary

     

- Number of words

5K

with reg.

100K

- Add words and phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choice of dictionaries

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Save/load per. dict.

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Delete/modify dict.

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Auto-learn

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Abbreviation expansion

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Allows for Macros

No

Yes

No

- Dictionary extension

*.prd

*.dic

*.dct

Display Window

     

- Change size/type

Yes

No

Yes

- Change font

Yes

No

Yes

- Adjust size of window

Yes

No (auto)

Yes

- Adjust location

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Fixed or Dynamic

both

both

fixed

Word Choice Arrangement

     

- Number of words

1-10

0-9, jump

1-9,plus

- Orientation

Hor/ Ver.

Ver.

Hor/Ver

- Alphabetical order

No (freq.)

Yes

Yes

- Error Correction Key

Yes

No

Yes

Prediction

     

- Predicts ahead - next

No

Yes

Yes

- Predicts phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Predicts by grammar

No

No

Yes

Preferences

     

- Cap. first word in

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Space after word

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Space after period

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choose by number

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choose by point/click

No

Yes

No

- To type selection

type #,

<esc> type #,

type 0

- On-Screen Keyboard

No

No

No

Speech

     

- Speak letter/word

No

No

Yes

- Speak word choices

No

No

Yes

- Speak finished sentence

No

No

Yes

Price (~Aug. 1, 95, DOS/Win)

$290

$75/$100

(var./$430)

Macintosh Focus

FEATURES4

TELEPATHIC 2.0

CO:WRITER

WORDWRITER

Platform

Mac

Mac

Mac

Self-contained word proc.

No

No

No

Dictionary

     

- Number of words

0-16,000

2, 10 40K

4000

- Add words and phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Choice of dictionaries

Yes

Yes

No

- Save/load per. dict

Yes

Yes

No

- Delete/modify dict

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Auto-learn

Yes

Yes

No

- Abbreviation expansion

Yes

Yes

No

Display Window

     

- Change size/type

Yes

Yes

No

- Change font

Yes

Yes

No

- Adjust size of window

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Adjust location

Yes

Yes

Yes

Word Choice Arrangement

     

- Number of words

1-64

0-9

Page

- Fixed or Dynamic

Fixed

Either

Fixed

Arrangement

     

- Orientation

Hor/Ver.

Hor/Ver.

Page

- Alphabetical order

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Error Correction Key

Yes

Yes

No

Prediction

     

- Predicts ahead

Yes

Yes

No

- Predicts phrases

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Predicts by grammar

No

Yes

No

Preferences

     

- Cap. first word in

Yes

Yes

No

- Space after word

Yes

Yes

Yes

- Space after period

Yes

Yes

No

- Choose by number

Yes

Yes

No

- To type selection

Set hot key

esc. key

N/A

- Choose by point/click

Yes

Yes

Yes

- On-Screen Keyboard

Yes

No

Yes

Speech

     

- Speak letter/word

Yes

Yes

No

- Speak word choices

Yes

Yes

No

- Speak finished sentence

No

Yes

No

Price (~Aug. 1, 95, Macintosh)

$295

$290

$150

Appendix B: Word Prediction Software Developer Listing (Updated May 2001)

NOTE: This list is intended as a reference for those who want an overview of word prediction software - rather than a "shopping list." Items appearing with a "M" are intended for the Macintosh operating system, while items appearing with a "D" or "W" are for the PC operating systems DOS and Windows respectively.  (Please contact individual companies as listed below for more specific operating system requirements.)

 ACE Centre Advisory Trust
92 Windmill Road
Headington
Oxford OX3 7DR
+44 1865 759800
FAX +44 1864 75810
info@ace-centre.org.uk
http://www.ace-centre.org.uk

Prophet - W

Applied Human Factors, Inc.
PO Box 781076
San Antonio, TX 78278
(888) 243-0098
(210) 408-0098
FAX (210) 408-0097
http://www.ahf-net.com

SoothSayer Word Prediction Program - W

Assistive Technology, Inc. (formerly Institute on Applied Technology)
7 Wells Avenue
Newton, MA 02459
(800) 793-9227
(617) 641-9000
FAX (617) 641-9191
customercare@assistivetech.com
http://www.assistivetech.com/

WriteAway - D
WriteAway 2000 - W

Aurora Systems Inc.
Box 43005
4739 Willingdon Ave.
Burnaby, BC
V5G-3H0
CANADA
(888) 290-1113
(604) 291-6310
FAX (604) 291-6310
http://www.aurora-systems.com

Aurora 2.0 for DOS - D
Aurora for Windows - W

Don Johnston Inc.
26799 W. Commerce Dr.
Volo, IL 60073
(800) 999-4660
(847) 740-0749
FAX (847) 740-7349
djde@mcs.net
djde@aol.com
http://www.donjohnston.com/

Co:Writer 4000 - M/W

Gus Communications Inc.
1006 Lonetree Court
Bellingham, WA 98226-3167
(360) 715-8580
FAX (360) 715-9633
gus@gusinc.com
http://www.gusinc.com/

Gus! Multimedia Speech System - W
Gus! Word Prediction - W

Information Services Inc.
PO Box 7056
Water St.
St. John's, NF
Canada
A1E 3Y3
1-888-492-4925
FAX: (709) 754-3826

WriteAway - D/M

Innovation Management Group
21550 Oxnard St., Suite 300
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
(800) 889-0987
(818) 346-3581
FAX (818) 346-3973
http://www.IMGPresents.com

My-T-Soft AT - W

Innovative Designs Inc.
913 San Raman Valley Blvd.
Suite 280
Danville,  CA 94526
(925) 736-9600
Finishline@FeaturedItems.com
http://www.spies.com/finishline/

Finish Line - D/W

Madentec Limited
9935 29 A Ave.
Edmonton, AB
T6N-1A9
CANADA
(877) 623-3682
(780) 450-8926
FAX (780) 988-6182
http://www.madentec.com

Screen Doors 2000 - W
Telepathic 2000 - W

Mayer-Johnson Company
PO Box 1579
Solana Beach, CA 92075-1579
(800) 588-4548
(619) 550-0084
FAX (619) 555-0449
http://www.mayer-johnson.com

Speaking Dynamically - M
Speaking Dynamically Pro - M

 NanoPac Inc.
4823 South Sheridan Road
Suite 302
Tulsa, OK 74145-5717
(800) 580-6086
(918) 665-0329
FAX (918) 665-0361
info@nanopac.com
http://www.nanopac.com/

CINTEX I - D

Origin Instruments
854 Greenview Dr.
Grand Prairie, TX 75050
(800) 280-3751
(972) 606-8740
FAX (972) 606-8741
http://www.orin.com

SofType - W

Penfriend Ltd.
30 South Oswald Road
Edinburgh
EH9 2HG
Scotland
Telephone: 0131 668 2000
Fax: 0131 668 2000
info@penfriend.ltd.uk
http://www.jasper.co.uk/designconcept/

Penfriend - W

Prentke Romich Company
1022 Heyl Road
Wooster, OH 44691
(800) 262-1984
(800) 262-1933
(800) 262-1990
(330) 262-1984
FAX (330) 263-4829
info@prentrom.com
http://www.prentrom.com

KeyREP - W
WiViK 2 Scan - W
WiViK 2 REP - W

R J Cooper & Associates
24843 Del Prado, Suite 283
Dana Point, CA 92629
(800) RJCOOPER
(714) 240-1912
FAX (714) 240-9785
http://www.rjcooper.com

ONSCREEN - M/W

Synapse Adaptive
3095 Kerner Blvd., Suite S
San Rafael,  CA  94901
(888) 285-9988
FAX(415) 455-9801
info@synapseadaptive.com
http://www.synapseadaptive.com/texthelp/texthelp_products.htm

textHELP! Read & Write -W
textHELP! Type & Talk -M/W

University of Dundee
Several research projects from the University of Dundee have yielded commercial products, including PredictAbility (see below).
Inclusive Technology Ltd.
Saddleworth Business Centre
Huddersfield Road
Delph . Oldham . OL3 5DF
UK
Telephone: +44 (0) 1457 819790
Fax: +44 (0) 1457 819799
Email: inclusive@inclusive.co.uk
http://www.inclusive.co.uk

PredictAbility - W

Words+ Inc.
1220 W. Ave. J
Lancaster. Ca 93534
(800) 869-8521
(661) 723-6523
FAX (661) 723-2114
support@words-plus.com
http://www.words-plus.com/

E Z Keys - D/W
Equalizer - D 
Morse Code WSKE II - D
Scanning WSKE II - D
ACSL (Augmentative Communication Software Library) - W

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